Types Of Walls In Building Construction (15 Types)

What Is A Wall?

A wall is a structural component that divides a space (room) into two sections while also providing safety and shelter. Walls are categorized into two types: outer walls and inner walls. The house is protected by the outer walls, while the inner walls help divide the enclosure into the needed number of rooms. Inner walls are also referred to as partition walls or interior walls while outer walls are referred to as exterior walls.

types of walls

Types Of Walls

1. Load-Bearing Walls

As the name implies, the entire construction is supported by walls rather than columns. In general, loads transmit from the slab to the beams, then to the columns, and finally to the foundation.

The required thickness of the wall, as well as the resulting stress on the base, will increase with the height of the building, making it uneconomical.

Load Bearing Wall
Load Bearing Wall
Courtesy: Understand building construction

Main Characteristics:

  • The following are the primary characteristics of load-bearing walls:
  • It is a structural component.
  • It carries a house’s weight from the roof and upper stories.
  • Load bearing walls carry loads all the way to the foundation or other appropriate structural elements.
  • It can support structural members such as beams (strong pieces of wood or metal), slabs, and walls on higher floors.
  • If the wall directly above the beam is built to handle the vertical load, it is referred to as a load bearing wall.
  • Load-bearing walls must also support their own weight.
  • On each floor, this wall is usually stacked on top of one another.
  • Load bearing walls can be utilised on the inside or outside of a building.
  • This type of wall is frequently perpendicular to the floor.

Types Of Load-bearing Walls

Precast Concrete Wall:

This wall has a pleasing appearance. The precast wall is noted for its great strength and longevity. It offers high protection and is simple to install.

Precast Concrete Wall Panel
Precast Concrete Wall Panel
Courtesy: Precast India Infrastructure

Retaining Wall:

It offers lateral support. Installing a retaining wall offers numerous environmental benefits, such as lowering erosion and protecting areas from flooding. It is also referred to as a revetment or a breast wall.

Retaining Wall
Courtesy: External Works Index

Masonry Wall:

The most durable component of any structure is the masonry wall. It provides for an infinite number of architectural expressions. They are strong and long-lasting. Masonry walls also contribute to temperature management both inside and out. It also improves fire resistance. The brick wall’s lateral rigidity is extremely low.

Masonry wall
Source: Gharpedia

Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls:

This type of wall is utilized for exterior wall cladding. Metals such as stainless steel, copper, and aluminum can be used. It can withstand gravity, earthquake, and wind loads

Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Wall
Courtesy: lwbsi.com

Stone Walls:

It is treated as a stone structure. It’s a type of masonry construction. This wall gives a building structure and encloses a region.

Load Bearing Stone Wall
Coursety: ResearchGate

2. Non-Load Bearing Walls

These types of walls do not sustain floor or roof loads above them, hence they will not support any of the structure’s weight. Partition walls inside a building are the best example non-load bearing wall.

They are built just to divide rooms and have no structural integrity. The non-load bearing wall can be removed or shortened without impacting the structure of the building.

Main Characteristics:

  • A non-load bearing wall does not support the above-mentioned floor and roof loads.
  • It’s not a component of the structural frame system.
  • The majority of cases, they are inner walls that serve to divide the floor into rooms.
  • They are designed to be lighter in order to lessen the structure’s dead load.
  • Any non-load bearing walls can be removed without affecting the building’s safety.
  • The joists and rafters identify non-load bearing walls.

Types Of Non Load-Bearing Wall

Hollow Concrete Block Wall:

The concrete building’s walls are hollow. It has the advantage of being very strong. It Provides stability while reducing material waste.

Hollow Concrete Block Wall
Courtesy: minarprefab.co.in

 Facade Bricks Wall:

It is strong, long-lasting, and virtually maintenance-free. Colors retain their brightness in this brick. Facade bricks are environmentally friendly and long-lasting.

Facade Bricks Wall
Courtesy: inhabitat.com

Hollow Bricks Wall:

They live a green lifestyle. They have the potential to reduce the use of heating and cooling technologies. They are more powerful and can be used more effectively. Hollow bricks are inexpensive.

Hollow Bricks Wall
Courtesy: Studio Bios

Brick Wall (Partition Wall):

They are simple to construct and are used for the purpose of partition.

Partition Wall
Courtesy: pdgtugla.com

3. Cavity Walls

It is a wall made up of two leaves or skins with a void or cavity between them. A type of building wall construction that consists of an outer wall that is fastened to an inner wall that is separated by an air space. Cavity walls aid in preventing rain from penetrating the internal surface of the wall.

Cavity Wall

4. Shear Wall

A shear wall is a type of wall that is built around a lift pit, water sump, or staircase to keep the soil in place. Any shear wall is subjected to two pressures: wind pressure and soil pressure, or wind pressure and water pressure.

To counteract these forces, a shear wall is used. These walls are employed to support the lateral force applied to the structure by wind, earthquake, or any other lateral load.

Shear Wall
Ref: Structural Guide

5. Partition Wall

A partition wall is a non-load bearing internal wall that divides a large space into smaller spaces. The height of a partition wall is determined by its function, which can be one storey or a portion of one level. Glass, fiberboards, or brick masonry are used to construct these walls.

Partition Wall
Courtesy: ArchDaily

6. Panel Wall

A panel wall is an exterior non-load bearing wall in a framed building that is typically composed of wood. It is used to improve the appearance of buildings both inside and outside. It is fully supported at each storey but is subject to lateral loads.

Panel Wall
Courtesy: Rouge Engineer

7. Boundary Wall Or Compound Wall

A boundary wall is a type of wall that is constructed completely around a building or any plot to show the boundaries of the site.

Compound Wall
Ref: IndiaMart

8. Parapet Wall

Parapet walls are short, slim walls that are constructed at the edges of a building roof, bridges, walkways, and balconies. These types of walls can be constructed in the form of balustrades or other architectural shapes.

Parapet walls create a barrier to prevent accidents due to falling from the heights. Aside from safety, these walls also provide enhanced aesthetics, privacy, tackle winds, etc.

Parapet Wall
Source: Daily Civil

Also Read –

Difference Between 43 Grade, 53 Grade & 53 Grade Cement

Please Follow Our Facebook Page For More Updates.

Tags: Types of walls, Wall types, Different types of walls.

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!